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Between and he composed various articles for the Encyclopedic, and between and an article on Valeurs et monnaies, probably for the Dictionnaire du commerce of the abbe Morellet. It was in that he wrote his famous Lettres sur la liberte du commerce des grains, addressed to the comptroller-general, the abbe Terray. Condorcet's statement that Turgot corresponded with Smith is disproved by a letter of Smith to the duc de la Rochefoucauld, published in the Economic Journal March , p.

Turgot was hated by those who had been interested in the speculations in corn under the regime of the abbe Terray - among whom were included some of the princes of the blood. On the resignation of Malesherbes April , whom Turgot wished to replace by the abbe Very, Maurepas proposed to the king as his successor a nonentity named Amelot.

When the news of this reached Paris, it created a strong feeling against the planters; and on the motion of the Abbe Gregoire it was resolved by the assembly on the 15th of May " that the people of colour resident in the French colonies, born of free parents, were entitled to, as of right, and should be allowed, the enjoyment of all the privileges of French citizens, and among others those of being eligible to seats both in the parochial and colonial assemblies. In Dr Carton and the abbe Leynaud discovered huge Christian catacombs with several miles of subterranean galleries to which access is obtained by a small vaulted chamber.

These efforts were inspired by a series of scientific studies and criticisms, chief among which were Vauban's Dime royale, and the Taille tarifee of the Abbe de St. The abbe again declared "it is impossible for me honestly and sincerely to make the act of absolute retractation and submission exacted by the sovereign pontiff. Any frank recognition of the abbe's even general principles involves the abandonment of the identification of theology with scholasticism or even with specifically ancient thought in general. The abbe's central position, that our Lord himself held the proximateness of His second coming, involves the loss by churchmen of the prestige of directly divine power, since Church and Sacraments, though still the true fruits and vehicles of his life, death and spirit, cannot thus be immediately founded by the earthly Jesus himself.

Cardinal Siffrein, who is known as the Abbe Maury , resumed all the known artifices of sermon-style in a volume which has a permanent historical value, the well-known Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire ; he was himself rather a fiery politician than a persuasive divine. There was some revival of the art of the sermon at Versailles a century later, where the Abbe Maury, whose critical work has been mentioned above, preached with vivid eloquence between and ; the Pere Elisee , whom Diderot and Mme Roland greatly admired, held a similar place, at the same time, in Paris.

Among the best authorities on the history of the sermon are Abbe Maury: Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire 2 vols. His diligent attendance at the Royal Library attracted the attention of the keeper of the manuscripts, the Abbe Sallier, whose influence procured for him a small salary as student of the oriental languages.


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The Abbe Barthelemy procured for him a pension, with the appointment of interpreter of oriental languages at the Royal Library. Abbe published a somewhat more complete investigation, also founded upon the phenomena presented by gratings. Lord Rayleigh has recorded that he was himself convinced by Fraunhofer's reasoning at a date antecedent to the writings of Helmholtz and Abbe.

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A different treatment is then necessary, and for some of the problems which arise under this head the method of Abbe is convenient. His theological position is clearly defined in a homily on the three doctors - Diodore, Theodore and Nestorius - published by the Abbe Martin in the Journal asiatique for July He visited Paris from time to time and established intimate relations with the abbe de Saint Pierre, the abbe Vertot and the mathematician Pierre Varignon. On the other hand, with the efforts towards a rapprochement with the Church of Rome, to which the visit of the French Abbe Portal in gave some stimulus, the archbishop would have nothing to do.

Méthodologie de la dissertation en Histoire: Le Développement

She pretty certainly was the chief cause of his early introduction to good society, the abbe de Chateauneuf his sponsor in more ways than one having been her friend. The abbe de Chateauneuf instructed him early in belleslettres and deism, and he showed when a child the unsurpassed faculty for facile verse-making which always distinguished him.

The abbe de Chateauneuf died before his godson left school, but he had already introduced him to the famous and dissipated coterie of the Temple, of which the grand prior Vendome was the head, and the poets Chaulieu and La Fare the chief literary stars. It does not appear that Voltaire got into any great scrapes; but his father tried to break him off from such society by sending him first to Caen and then, in the suite of the marquis de Chateauneuf, the abbe's brother, to the Hague.

The chief and most galling of his critics at this time was the Abbe Desfontaines, and the chief of Desfontaines's attacks was entitled La Voltairomanie, in reply to a libel of Voltaire's called Le Preservatif.

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On the 30th of May the priests were once more sent for - to wit, his nephew, the abbe Mignot, the abbe Gaultier, who had officiated on the former occasion, and the parish priest, the cure of St Sulpice. Metternich especially ascribed this mainly to the "weakness" of the ministry, and when in the political elections still further illustrated this trend, notably by the election of the celebrated Abbe Gregoire, it began to be debated whether the time had not come to put in force the terms of the secret treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

The next and most important forward step in the progress of optical glass manufacture was initiated by Ernst Abbe and carried out jointly by him and 0. On the other hand, while in the older crown and flint glasses the relation between refraction and dispersion had been practically fixed, dispersion and refraction increasing regularly with the density of the glass, in some of the new glasses introduced by Abbe and Schott this relation is altered and a relatively low refractive index is accompanied by a relatively high dispersion, while in others a high refractive index is associated with low dispersive power.


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  • Following in the steps of the Abbe Charles Bossut Nouvelles Experiences sur la resistance des fluides, , he published, in , a revised edition of his Principes d'hydraulique, which contains a satisfactory theory of the motion of fluids, founded solely upon experiments. Comte's immense superiority over such praeRevolutionary utopians as the Abbe Saint Pierre, no less than over the group of post-revolutionary utopians, is especially visible in this firm grasp of the cardinal truth that the improvement of the social organism can only be effected by a moral development, and never by any changes in mere political mechanism, or any violences in the way of an artificial redistribution of wealth.

    Later magazines were L'Echo du cabinet du lecture paroissial Montreal, 18 59 , 15 vols.

    Colbert, seeing the public utility of such a periodical, ordered the abbe Gallois, a contributor of De Sallo's, to re-establish it, an event which took place on the 4th of January It lingered nine years under the new editor, who was replaced in by the abbe de la Roque, and the latter in his turn by the president Cousin, in It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des sciences et des beaux-arts by the abbe Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon , and as Journal de litterature, des sciences, et des arts by the abbe Grosier. Religious periodicals date from , and the Journal ecclesiastique of the abbe de la Roque, to whom is also due the first medical journal Among the contributors of Freron was another manufacturer of criticism, the abbe de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrere, founded Observations sur la litterature moderne and L'Observateur litteraire He entered holy orders and ultimately attained the rank of abbe; but his tastes all lay in the direction of experimental research, especially on the subject of electricity.

    She was brought up under a simple and austere regime and educated with a view to the French marriage arranged by Maria Theresa, the abbe Vermond being appointed as her tutor in When a proposal was set on foot to bring about a reconciliation between the Roman Church and the Christian Churches of the East, the Abbe Duchesne endeavoured to show that the union of those churches was possible under the Roman supremacy, because unity did not necessarily entail uniformity. Only some such position as Abbe Loisy's critical summing up brings out its specific greatness.

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    Among the few critically satisfactory French books, Abbe Loisy's Le Quatrieme evangile stands pre-eminent for delicate psychological analysis and continuous sense of the book's closely knit unity; whilst Pere Th. In the 18th century the abbe Banier, in his Mythologie et la fable pliquees par l'histoire, was frankly Euhemeristic; other leading Euhemerists were Clavier, Sainte-Croix, Raoul Rochette, Em.

    His college course, begun at Amiens under the abbe Jacques Delille, was finished in Paris, where he took a scholarship at the college of Plessis. His first published writings consist of articles forming part of the Traite de mecanique of the Abbe Marie, who was his professor; Legendre's name, however, is not mentioned. Albert's works published in twenty-one folios by the Dominican Pierre Jammy in , and reproduced by the Abbe Borgnet, Paris, , 36 vols. A greater originality in the method of teaching the ancient languages was exemplified by Fenelon, whose views were partially reflected by the Abbe Fleury, who also desired the simplification of grammar, the diminution of composition, and even the suppression of Latin verse.

    These deities are not easily ' One of the most important sources for the ancient Mexican traditions and myths is the so-called " Codex Chimalpopoca," a manuscript in the Mexican language discovered by the Abbe analysed, but on the other hand Tonatiuh and Metztli, the sun and moon, stand out distinctly as nature gods, and the traveller still sees in the huge adobe pyramids of Teotihuacan, with their sides oriented to the four quarters, an evidence of the importance of their worship. The war-god Huitzilopochtli was the real head of the Aztec pantheon; his idol remains in Mexico, a huge block of basalt on which is sculptured on the one side his hideous personage, adorned with the humming-bird feathers on the left hand which signify his name, while the not less frightful war-goddess Teoyaomiqui, or " divine wardeath," occupies the other side.

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    See Abbe Blampignon, Massillon, d'apres des documents inedits Paris, ; and L'Episcopat de Massillon d'apres des documents inedits, suivi de sa correspondance Paris, ; F. He was badly brought up by a feeble father, a mother who combined immorality with religion, and a libertine abbe.

    There is a selection of Gratry's writings and appreciation of his style by the Abbe Pichot, in Pages choisies des Grands Ecrivains series, published by Armand-Colin They then came to his second son, Francois du Fresne, who sold the collection, the greater part of the manuscripts being purchased by the abbe du Champs. The abbe handed them over to a bookseller named Mariette, who resold part of them to Baron Hohendorf. Sorby and, later, Abbe, designed instruments on the same principle to be used in connexion with the microscope.

    Though a Catholic priest and professor of history at the Catholic university of Lyons, the Abbe afterwards Canon Chevalier knew how to maintain an independent critical attitude even in religious questions. The exiled abbe Vincenzo Gioberti championed an Italian confederacy under the presidency of the pope; hand in hand with the unity of the nation should go the unity of the faith.

    His chief successes were attained by portraits, and those of Charles Nodier and the Abbe Lamennais became widely popular. But the Abbe Huc states that William Moorcroft, an Englishman who made a journey into Tibet in the neighbourhood of Lake Manasarowar in , and another into Kashgar in , lived in Lhasa for twelve years disguised as a Mussulman.

    In the Abbe Desgodins travelled through portions of eastern Tibet and reached Chiamdo in Kham , but was prevented from approaching any closer to Lhasa. The Memoires of Marshal Berwick, revised, annotated and continued by the Abbe Hooke, were published by the marshal's grandson in Jourdain in Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques , pp. The young prince was educated at his father's miniature court in Rome, with James Murray, Jacobite earl of Dunbar, for his governor, and under various tutors, amongst whom were the learned Chevalier Ramsay, Sir Thomas Sheridan and the abbe Legoux.

    To this, which seems authentic, is usually added the tradition due to the abbe Boileau that afterwards he used at times to see an imaginary precipice by his bedside, or at the foot of the chair on which he was sitting. Fn3 The Cathar rites, which remain to us in a manual of the sect, "recall," says the Abbe Guiraud, no too favourable a witness, "those of the primitive church with a truth and precision the more striking the nearer we go back to the apostolic age.

    Just as at the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder "handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbe Guiraud remarks that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of Catholic origin. Fn3 The Abbe Guiraud remarks that in refusing to take oaths the Cathars "contraried the social principles on which the constitutions of all states repose," and congratulates himself that society is not yet so thoroughly "laicized" as to have given up oaths in the most important acts of social life.

    Cleveland Abbe 20 has given a full historical account of the subject to which reference may be made for further details. The Abbe Raynal wrote for the Mercure de France, and compiled a series of popular but superficial works, which he published and sold himself. Marignan questioned, on archaeological grounds, the date assigned to the tapestry, as the Abbe de la Rue had questioned it ninety years before; but his arguments were refuted by Gaston Paris and M.

    Young Gay-Lussac received his early education at home under the direction of the abbe Bourdieux and other masters, and in was sent to Paris to prepare for the Ecole Polytechnique, into which he was admitted at the:end of after a brilliant examination. This was condemned by certain archbishops and theologians as the repetition of the five condemned propositions of Jansen, and Gerberon defended it, under the name of "Abbe Valentin" in Le Miroir sans tache Paris, Lobo's own narrative was translated from a MS.

    He attended the meetings of the Saint-Simonists, lent an ear to the romantic mysticism of Pere Enfantin and later to the teaching of Abbe Lamennais.

    Naturalism and Unbelief in France, 1650–1729

    From onwards Abbe Liszt divided his time between Rome and Weimar, where during the summer months he received pupils - gratis as formerly - and, from up to his death at Bayreuth on the 31st of July , he also taught for several months every year at the Hungarian Conservatoire of Budapest. Church history was allowed to be represented by such men as the Abbe Darras; and many French Catholics were ready to accept without question what the Bollandist Pere de Smedt has not hesitated to call the historical errors and lies of Charles Bartelemy. The most compendious of all works of reference on the subject, though partly antiquated, is the Encyclopedia theologique of the Abbe Migne , Ser.

    Priestley, and Canton continued the investigation, but it was reserved for the Abbe flatly to throw a clear light on this curious branch of the science Traite de mineralogie, His numerous works include the musical comedy, Pierre le Grand , for Gretry's music, and the opera, Les Deux Journees , music by Cherubini; also L' Abbe de l'epee , and some other plays; and Causeries d'un vieillard , Contes a ma fille , and Les Adieux du vieux conteur According to the Abbe Soulavie, the duke of Richelieu's advice was to reflect on Voltaire's "last utterances" on the subject.

    His intimate friend, the Abbe Bremond, gave him the last absolution and remained with him until his death on the 15th of July Amunatequi, Descubri miento y conquista de Chile Santiago, , a valuable detailed account of the Spanish conquest; by same author, Los Precursores de la independencia de Chile Santiago, , a clear useful description of the evils of the Spanish colonial system; Horacio Lara, Cronica de la Araucania Santiago, , a history of the Araucanian Indians right up to recent dates; Abbe Eyzaguirre, Histoire du Chili Lille, , mainly dealing with the position of the Church during the colonial period.

    This hole is termed the " stop " or " diaphragm "; Abbe used the term " aperture stop " for both the hole and the limiting margin of the 1 The investigations of E. Abbe on geometrical optics, originally published only in his university lectures, were first compiled by S. This ray, named by Abbe a " principal ray " not to be confused with the " principal rays " of the Gaussian theory , passes through the centre of the entrance pupil before the first refraction, and the centre of the exit pupil after the last refraction. Abbe succeeded in computing microscope objectives free from error of the axis point and satisfying the sine condition for several colours, which therefore, according to his definition, were " aplanatic for several colours "; such systems he termed " apochromatic.

    Czapski, Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach Abbe, published separately at Breslau in , and as vol. Eppenstein, was published at Leipzig in with the title, Grundziige der Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach Abbe, and in vol. Le Calvaire , a chapter of which on the defeat of aroused much discussion, was followed by L' Abbe Jules , the story of a mad priest; by Sebastien Roch , a bitter picture of the Jesuit school in which his own early years were spent; Le Jardin des supplices , a Chinese story; Les Memoires d'une femme de chambre ; and Les Vingt-et-un jours d'un neurasthenique The boy was brought up at Lyons and was strongly influenced by one of his masters, the Abbe Noirot.

    The fact that a pair of plates which repel one another at a certain distance may attract one another at a smaller distance was deduced by Laplace from theory, and verified by the observations of the abbe Haiiy.